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References for part E

Hong Kong Marine Life Stranding and Conservation 

The Ocean Park Conservation Fund

Further Information and References

Chen, T, Hung, S K, Qiu, Y, Jia, X, & Jefferson, T A (2010), Distribution, Abundance, and Individual Movements of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa Chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China de Gruyter, 74(2), 117-125

Jefferson, T A, Webber, M A, & Pitman, R L (2011), Marine Mammals of the World: a Comprehensive Guide to Their Identification, Elsevier

Würsig, B, Perrin, W F, & Thewissen, J G M (Eds), (2009), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, Academic Press

Hong Kong Horseshoe Crab Conservation 

The Ocean Park Conservation Fund

Further Information and References

https://www.wwf.org.hk/en/oceans/protection/horseshoecrab/

https://www.opcf.org.hk/en/species/horseshoe-crab

https://oceanconservancy.org/blog/2020/05/19/11-facts-

horseshoe-crabs-will-blow-mind/ 

https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/when-did-dinosaurs-live.html

https://www.afcd.gov.hk/english/conservation/con_mar/con_mar_hor/con_mar_hor_hor/con_ma r_hor_hor_how.html 

https://www.horseshoecrab.org/anat/vision.html

https://www.nwf.org/Educational-Resources/Wildlife-Guide/Invertebrates/Horseshoe-Crab

https://www.wwf.org.hk/en/oceans/protection/horseshoecrab/

Hong Kong Oyster Reef Restoration

The Nature Conservancy Hong Kong

Further Information and References

https://www.tnc.org.hk/en-hk/

Restoration Guidelines for Shellfish Reefs, James Fitzsimons, Simon Branigan, Robert D Brumbaugh, Tein McDonald and Philine S E zu Ermgassen, The Nature Conservancy and Society for Ecological Restoration

Pak Nai “Kon Pak Stream” Field Trip Teacher’s Manual, and Pak Nai Field Trip Teacher’s Manual, The Hong Kong Jockey Club Ridge to Reef Environmental Education Programme, The Nature Conservancy Hong Kong

Big Issues of Microplastics, School Partnership Project 

WWF-Hong Kong

Case Studies

Exhibition Panel Set

https://d3q9070b7kewus.cloudfront.net/downloads/ecf_big_issue_of_microplastics_exhibition_panel.pdf

Science Workshops – Student Take Home Kit

https://wwfhk.awsassets.panda.org/downloads/a5_booklet_v4_20210428_preview.pdf

WWF Oceans and Plastics – Activity Set published by WWF-UK

https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/wwf-oceans-and-plastics-ks2-activity-set-11967554

References for Part D

Ocean Pollution Prevention 

Steven Matthew

Further Information and References

http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/Pages/Default.aspx

Managed by the Marine department:

Cap. 413 Merchant Shipping (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Ordinance

Cap. 414 Merchant Shipping (Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution) Ordinance

Cap. 605 Bunker Oil Pollution (Liability and Compensation) Ordinance

Managed by the Environment Protection Department:

Cap. 358 Water Pollution Control Ordnance 

Cap. 466 Dumping at Sea Ordnance

Citizen Action and Community Initiatives

Isabelle Chabrat and Harry Chan Tin-Ming, MH

Further Information and References

www.epd.gov.hk/epd/clean_shorelines/index.html

www.sldlp.net

https://www.scmp.com/video/scmp-films/3086520/ghost-net-hunter-hong-kong-divers-quest-rid-oceans-deadly-killer

The Process of Impact Innovation 

Chicky Ajoy Bhavnani and Cesar Jung Harada

Case Studies

Coral Conservation Program

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1jbs8nCf82Kj5ELT-335pTmftyp_Xk22-/view?usp=sharing

Plankton and Microplastic

https://www.instructables.com/Plankton-Microplastic-Drag-Net/

Further Information and Links

www.makerbay.net

Responsible Citizens: Sustainable Consumption and Lifestyles 

Edward Choi, Hermia Chan and Kelly Lam

Further Information and References

To calculate the CO2 emission of return flights:

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2019/jul/19/carbon-calculator-how-taking-one-flight-emits-as-much-as-many-people-do-in-a-year

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/entertainment_1.shtml 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00227-006-0289-1

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00244-015-0227-7

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30444533/

https://www.animallaw.info/article/detailed-discussion-laws-concerning-orcas-captivity#s8

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong-environme/discarded-coronavirus-masks-clutter-hong-kongs-beaches-trails-idUSKBN20Z0PP

https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2020/apr/07/fast-fashion-speeding-toward-environmental-disaster-report-warns

https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/youre-literally-eating-microplastics-how-you-can-cut-down-exposure-to-them/2019/10/04/22ebdfb6-e17a-11e9-8dc8-498eabc129a0_story.html

https://www.wwf.org.hk/en/whatwedo/oceans/advocating_for_more_marine_protected_areas/code_of_conduct_for_clam_digging_activities/

The Ocean Economy – a New Frontier – Also the Opportunity to Build a Sustainable Blue Economy 

Pierre Rousseau

Further Information and References

www.biomarine.org

www.blue-finance.org

www.blueventures.org

www.deme-group.com

www.ec.europa.eu

www.fao.org

www.imo.org

www.katapultocean.com

www.nomadplastic.com

www.oecd.org

www.report.businesscommission.org

www.seaforester.org

www.soaalliance.org

www.weforum.org

The Blue Economy definition (1):

World Bankthe blue economy is the “sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, and jobs while preserving the health of ocean ecosystem.”

European Commission: all economic activities related to oceans, seas, and coasts. It covers a wide range of interlinked established and emerging sectors.

Commonwealth of Nations: an emerging concept which encourages better stewardship of our ocean or ‘blue’ resources.

Conservation International: blue economy also includes economic benefits that may not be marketed, such as carbon storage, coastal protection, cultural values, and biodiversity.

The Center for the Blue Economy: it is now a widely used term around the world with three related but distinct meanings – the overall contribution of the oceans to economies, the need to address the environmental and ecological sustainability of the oceans, and the ocean economy as a growth opportunity for both developed and developing countries.

A United Nations representative recently defined the Blue Economy as an economy that “comprises a range of economic sectors and related policies that together determine whether the use of ocean resources is sustainable. An important challenge of the blue economy is to understand and better manage the many aspects of oceanic sustainability, ranging from sustainable fisheries to ecosystem health to preventing pollution. Secondly, the blue economy challenges us to realise that the sustainable management of ocean resources will require collaboration across borders and sectors through a variety of partnerships, and on a scale that has not been previously achieved. This is a tall order, particularly for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) who face significant limitations.” The UN notes that the Blue Economy will aid in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals, of which one goal, 14, is “Life Below Water”.

World Wildlife Fund: Principles for a Sustainable BLUE ECONOMY with two senses given to this term: “For some, blue economy means the use of the sea and its resources for sustainable economic development. For others, it simply refers to any economic activity in the maritime sector, whether sustainable or not.” WWF reveals in its purpose of the report, there is still no widely accepted definition of the term blue economy despite increasing high-level adoption of it as a concept and as a goal of policymaking and investment.

The Blue Economy: 10 Years – 100 innovations – 100 million jobs is also a book by Gunter Pauli. He defines the Blue Economy business model which aims is to shift society from scarcity to abundance by optimising the access to local resources and tackling issues related to the environment. If it could, to a certain extent, be aligned with some of the concepts developed above, the Blue Economy defined here by Gunter Pauli is different from the one exposed in the present paper.

The definition of the Blue Economy that we do use in the present document is a combination of the one stated and the European Commission, The centre of the Blue Economy and the Non-Profit organisation Conservation International: Blue Economy comprises all economic activities related to oceans, seas and coasts. It covers a wide range of interlinked established and emerging sectors and the ocean economy as a growth opportunity for both developed and developing countries. It fully integrates the need to address the environmental and ecological sustainability of the oceans. It also includes economic benefits that may not be marketed, such as carbon storage, coastal protection, cultural values and biodiversity.

Related Terms to the Blue Economy:

Ocean Economy

A related term of Blue Economy is Ocean Economy, and we see some organisations using the two terms interchangeably. However, these two terms represent different concepts. Ocean Economy simply deals with the use of ocean resources and is strictly aimed at empowering the economic system of the ocean. Blue Economy goes beyond viewing the ocean economy solely as a mechanism for economic growth. It focuses on the sustainability of the ocean for economic growth. Therefore, the Blue Economy encompasses ecological aspects of the ocean along with economic aspects.

Green Economy

The Green Economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment. It is closely related with ecological economics. Therefore, Blue Economy is a part of Green Economy. During Rio+20 Summit in June 2012, Pacific small island developing states stated that, for them, “a Green Economy was in fact a Blue Economy”.

Blue Growth

A related term is Blue Growth, which means “support to the growth of the maritime sector in a sustainable way.” The term is adopted by the European Union as an integrated maritime policy to achieve the goals of the Europe 2020 strategy.

(1) Main source: Wikipedia 

↑ Total production

↑ Wild fish capture

↑ Aquaculture harvest

Coral Restoration: Objectives and Examples in Hong Kong

Vriko Yu

Further Information and References

Aronson J, Blatz C, Aronson T (2016) Restoring ecosystem health to improve human health and well-being: physicians and restoration ecologists unite in a common cause. Ecol Soc 21

Chapin F S, Zavaleta E S, Eviner V T, Naylor R L, Vitousek P M, Reynolds H L, Hooper D U, Lavorel S, Sala O E, Hobbie S E, Mack M C, Díaz S (2000) Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 

Dobson A, Lodge D, Alder J, Cumming G S, Keymer J, McGlade J, Mooney H, Rusak JA, Sala O, Wolters V, Wall D, Winfree R, Xenopoulos MA (2006) Habitat loss, trophic collapse, and the decline of ecosystem services. Ecology 

Gouezo M, Golbuu Y, Fabricius K, Olsudong D, Mereb G, Nestor V, Wolanski E, Harrison P, Doropoulos C (2019) Drivers of recovery and reassembly of coral reef communities. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 

Jackson S T, Hobbs R J (2009) Ecological restoration in the light of ecological history. Science (80-) 

Lotze H K, Lenihan H S, Bourque B J, Bradbury R H, Cooke R G, Kay M C, Kidwell S M, Kirby M X, Peterson C H, Jackson J B C (2006) Depletion degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science (80-) 

Mawdsley J R, O’Malley R, Ojima DS (2009) A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Conserv Biol 

Possingham HP, Bode M, Klein CJ (2015) Optimal Conservation Outcomes Require Both Restoration and Protection. PLoS Biol 13 

Society of Ecological Restoration International Science & Policy Working Group (2004) The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration 

Marine Protected Areas: Role and Function

Dr Nicolas Pascal

Further Information and References

https://www.barrierreef.org/the-reef/the-value

www.protectedplanet.net

Alvarez-Filip, L, et al (2009) “Flattening of Caribbean coral reefs: region-wide declines in architectural complexity.” Proc R Soc B doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0339

Burke, L M, et al (2004) “Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean”

Burke, L, et al (2011). “Reefs at risk”, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC 124

Dixon, J A  et al (1993)  “Meeting Ecological and Economic Goals: The Case of Marine Parks in the Caribbean,” paper prepared for the Second Conference on Ecology and Biodiversity Loss, 

Dulvy, N K, et al (2004) “Coral reef cascades and the indirect effects of predator removal by exploitation”, Ecology letters 7(5): 410-416

Ecology and Biodiversity Loss, Beijer Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, July 29-31, 1992, World Bank, Washington DC, USA

Halpern, B S and R R Warner (2002) “Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects”, Ecology letters 5(3): 361-366

Kelleher, G (1999) “Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas,” IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK  xxiv +107pp

Laffoley, D, et al (2018) “Marine Protected Areas, in: Sheppard, C (ed) World Seas: An Environmental Evaluation: Volume III: Ecological Issues and Environmental Impacts,” Academic Press

Mellin, C, et al (2016) “Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities”, Ecology letters 19(6): 629-637

Mumby, P J and R S Steneck (2008) “Coral Reef Management and Conservation in Light of Rapidly Evolving Ecological Paradigms,” Trends Ecol Evol 2008 Oct; 23(10):555-63, doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.06.011, Epub 2008, Aug 21

Mumby, P J, et al (2007) “Trophic Cascade Facilitates Coral Recruitment in a Marine Reserve,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(20): 8362-8367

Mumby, P, et al (2014) “Towards Reef Resilience and Sustainable Livelihoods: A Handbook for Caribbean Coral Reef Managers”

Paddack, M J, et al (2009) “Recent Region-wide Declines in Caribbean Reef Fish Abundance,” Current biology 19(7): 590-595

Steneck, R S, et al (2018) “Attenuating Effects of Ecosystem Management on Coral Reefs,” Science Advances, 4(5), eaao5493

Storlazzi, C D, et al (2019) “Rigorously Valuing the Role of US Coral Reefs in Coastal Hazard Risk Reduction,” US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2019–1027, 42 p,

Weijerman, M, et al (2018) “Managing Local Stressors for Coral Reef Condition and Ecosystem Services Delivery under Climate Scenarios,” Frontiers in Marine Science, 5, 425

U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2019–1027, 42 retrieved from

https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20191027

References for Part C

Illegal fishing

Gary Stokes

Further Information and References

What is IUU Fishing?

http://www.fao.org/iuu-fishing/background/what-is-iuu-fishing/en/

Fisheries Crime 

https://www.unodc.org/documents/commissions/CCPCJ/CCPCJ_Sessions/CCPCJ_25/ECN152016_CRP2_e_.pdf
https://www.unodc.org/documents/about-unodc/Campaigns/Fisheries/focus_sheet_PRINT.pdf

https://www.marineinsight.com/maritime-law/7-dangers-of-flags-of-convenience-foc-to-seafarers/

https://www.itfglobal.org/en/sector/seafarers/flags-of-convenience

https://ejfoundation.org/resources/downloads/report-all-at-sea_0_1.pdf
https://nexushumantrafficking.files.wordpress.com/2017/01/surtees-2013-trapped-at-sea.pdf

https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/WCMS_143251/lang–en/index.htm

http://www.fao.org/3/t0502e/T0502E01.htm

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cyanide-fishing/

https://www.wired.co.uk/article/global-fishing-watch-false-data-windward

https://www.sustainalytics.com/esg-research/resource/investors-esg-blog/slavery-in-the-seafood-industry

https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/blood-and-water-slavery-in-the-fishing-industry-revealed

https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/policy-areas/fisheries/lang–en/index.htm

https://ec.europa.eu/oceans-and-fisheries/index_en

http://www.fao.org/3/w6602e/w6602e04.htm

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11160-015-9403-0

https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_214472.pdf

https://www.sbs.com.au/news/australia-s-imported-seafood-linked-to-slave-labour/c1c66ba2-2a60-4b11-bf9b-dc143aa62e91

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/dec/14/shrimp-sold-by-global-supermarkets-is-peeled-by-slave-labourers-in-thailand

https://ejfoundation.org/resources/downloads/report-all-at-sea_0_1.pdf
https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/the-illegal-fishing-and-organised-crime-nexus-1.pdf

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/study-finds-seafood-mislabeled-illegal

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/article-nearly-half-of-canadian-seafood-improperly-labelled-study/

https://www.economist.com/europe/2017/11/23/netherlands-fishmongers-accuse-herring-tasters-of-erring

The Scale of IUU Fishing

http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6069e.pdf

https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2013/12/10/how-to-end-illegal-fishing

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0004570

https://www.cbd.int/financial/monterreytradetech/unep-illegaltrade.pdf

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2211464513000948

https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=GB2013202617

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0004570

The Harms of Fisheries Crime

https://reliefweb.int/report/world/state-world-fisheries-and-aquaculture-2012#:~:text=The%20State%20of%20World%20Fisheries%20and%20Aquaculture%202012%20reveals%20that,of%20their%20animal%20protein%20intake.

http://www.fao.org/3/i9540en/i9540en.pdf

http://www.fao.org/3/t0502e/T0502E01.htm

https://science.jrank.org/pages/2162/Drift-Net.html

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2211464513000948

https://journal-neo.org/2014/04/18/rus-transnatsional-naya-organizovannaya-prestupnost-v-sfere-ry-bolovnogo-promy-sla/

https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_214472.pdf

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2593582

http://www.fao.org/3/i9540en/i9540en.pdf

https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.environ.33.020807.143204

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-fish-food/one-third-of-world-fish-catch-used-for-animal-feed-idUSTRE49S0XH20081029

https://www.oecd.org/ctp/crime/evading-the-net-tax-crime-fisheries-sector.pdf
https://www.oecd.org/ctp/crime/evading-the-net-tax-crime-fisheries-sector.pdf
https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=iS9tbC7mLIUC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=legal+and+illegal+fish+are+sold+on+the+same+markets,+but+legitimate+fishers+pay+higher+operating+costs+associated+with+licensing+and+overhead+due+to+conservation+and+management+measur#v=onepage&q=legal%20and%20illegal%20fish%20are%20sold%20on%20the%20same%20markets%2C%20but%20legitimate%20fishers%20pay%20higher%20operating%20costs%20associated%20with%20licensing%20and%20overhead%20due%20to%20conservation%20and%20management%20measur&f=false
https://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=TAD/FI(2017)14/FINAL&docLanguage=En
https://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/legacy/uploadedfiles/peg/publications/report/PewOSSWorldEconomypdf.pdf

https://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/economy/moratorium-impacts.php

https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2011/05/02/milliondollar-reef-sharks

https://www.futuredirections.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/1297299965-FDI%20Strategic%20Analysis%20Paper%20-%2010%20February%202011.pdf

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/18366503.2013.10815747

https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/the-illegal-fishing-and-organised-crime-nexus-1.pdf

https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/transnational-organized-crime/book241197

Shipping

Abbie Hui

Further Information and References

http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/HotTopics/Pages/Sulphur-2020.aspx 

https://blogs.worldbank.org/transport/zero-emission-shipping-whats-it-developing-countries

https://medium.com/shone-blog/the-shipping-industry-is-now-tackling-its-emission-problem-head-on-c0d03105e09f

https://phys.org/news/2019-06-groups-tons-fishing-nets-pacific.html

https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/rmt2019_en.pdf

https://www.eea.europa.eu/signals/signals-2014/close-up/litter-in-our-seas

https://www.history.com/topics/1980s/exxon-valdez-oil-spill

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/long_reads/torrey-canyon-oil-spill-cornwall-richard-pearce-a7633486.html

https://www.itopf.org/knowledge-resources/data-statistics/statistics/

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/oil-spills-30-years-after-exxon-valdez

https://www.wwf.de/fileadmin/fm-wwf/Publikationen-PDF/Study_Silent_Invasion.pdf
https://www3.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/vgp_graywater.pdf

Climate Change Consequences

George Ma

Further Information and References

 RCP stands for Representative Concentration Pathway. The RCP2.6, a low-emissions scenario, assumes that major steps will be taken by human societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions so that global warming will be kept below 2°C by 2100. The RCP8.5, a high-emissions scenario, assumes a ‘business as usual’ pathway, such that greenhouse gas emissions will increase rapidly throughout the 21st century, resulting in a 4°C warming by 2100

Bennett, J (2016) A Global Warming Primer: Answering Your Questions about the Science, the Consequences, and the Solutions, Big Kid Science

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2019) Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate

Office for Climate Education (2020) Summary for Teachers: The Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate

Office for Climate Education (2019) Workshop: Ocean and Climate Change

Plastics: Definition, History and Chemical Properties

Christelle Not

Further Information and References

https://greenchemuoft.wordpress.com/2019/09/13/green-marketing-in-the-plastic-era-honesty-or-hype/

The Disposable Culture and Challenges with Recycling

Tracey Read

Further Information and References

https://ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/the-new-plastics-economy-rethinking-the-future-of-plastics-and-catalysing

https://plasticsrecycling.org/apr-design-guide

https://plasticsrecycling.org/images/pdf/design-guide/Full_APR_Design_Guide.pdf
https://rethinkplasticalliance.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/bffp_rpa_reusable_solutions_report.pdf
https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/25496/singleUsePlastic_sustainability.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/EllenMacArthurFoundation_TheNewPlasticsEconomy_Pages.pdf
https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/publications/NPEC-Hybrid_English_22-11-17_Digital.pdf
https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/Reuse.pdf

https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/the-new-plastics-economy-rethinking-the-future-of-plastics-catalysing-action

https://www.gov.hk/en/residents/environment/waste/management/prs.htm

https://www.government.nl/topics/circular-economy/from-a-linear-to-a-circular-economy

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/future-of-food/food-packaging-plastics-recycle-solutions/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318567844_Production_use_and_fate_of_all_plastics_ever_made

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324926383_Advanced_approaches_to_produce_polyhydroxyalkanoate_PHA_biopolyesters_in_a_sustainable_and_economic_fashion

https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/health-environment/article/2116318/hong-kong-throws-away-52-million-bottles-every

https://www.statista.com/statistics/282732/global-production-of-plastics-since-1950/

http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_NEWPLASTICSECONOMY_2017.pdf 

Macro and Micro Plastics in the Environment

Theresa Wing Ling Lam and Lincoln Fok

Further Information and References

Andrady, A  L  (2015), Persistence of Plastic Litter in the Oceans, Marine Anthropogenic Litter (pp. 57-72): Springer, Cham

Andrady, A  L (2011), Microplastics in the Marine Environment,  Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(8), 1596-1605 

Antunes, J, Frias, J, & Sobral, P (2018), Microplastics on the Portuguese Coast,  Marine Pollution Bulletin, 131, 294-302 

Arthur, C, Baker, J, & Bamford, H (2009), Proceedings of the International Research Workshop on the Occurrence, Effects, and Fate of Microplastic Marine Debris, September 9-11, 2008, University of Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA, USA 

Bancin, L J, Walther, B A, Lee, Y-C, & Kunz, A (2019), Two-dimensional Distribution and Abundance of Micro-and Mesoplastic Pollution in the Surface Sediment of Xialiao Beach, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 140, 75-85 

Barnes, D K, Walters, A, & Gonçalves, L (2010), Macroplastics at Sea Around Antarctica. Marine Environmental Research, 70(2), 250-252 

Bergmann, M, Wirzberger, V, Krumpen, T, Lorenz, C, Primpke, S, Tekman, M B, & Gerdts, G (2017), High Quantities of Microplastic in Arctic Deep-sea Sediments from the HAUSGARTEN observatory. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(19), 11000-11010 

Carpenter, E J, & Smith, K (1972), Plastics on the Sargasso Sea Surface, Science, 175(4027), 1240-1241 

Chae, D-H, Kim, I-S, Kim, S-K, Song, Y K, & Shim, W J (2015), Abundance and Distribution Characteristics of Microplastics in Surface Seawaters of the Incheon/Kyeonggi Coastal Region, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 69(3), 269-278 

Cheung, P K, Fok, L, Hung, P L, & Cheung, L T (2018), Spatio-temporal Comparison of Neustonic Microplastic Density in Hong Kong Waters Under the Influence of the Pearl River Estuary, Science of the Total Environment, 628, 731-739 

Chiba, S, Saito, H, Fletcher, R, Yogi, T, Kayo, M, Miyagi, S, . . . Fujikura, K (2018), Human Footprint in the Abyss: 30 year Records of Deep-sea Plastic Debris, Marine Policy, 96, 204-212 

Cózar, A, Martí, E, Duarte, C M, García-de-Lomas, J, Van Sebille, E, Ballatore, T J, Echevarría, F (2017), The Arctic Ocean as a Dead End for Floating Plastics in the North Atlantic Branch of the Thermohaline Circulation, Science advances, 3(4), e1600582 

de Lucia, G A, Caliani, I, Marra, S, Camedda, A, Coppa, S, Alcaro, L, . . . Cicero, A M (2014), Amount and Distribution of Neustonic Micro-plastic off the Western Sardinian Coast (Central-Western Mediterranean Sea), Marine Environmental Research, 100, 10-16 

Derraik, J G (2002), The Pollution of the Marine Environment by Plastic Debris: a Review, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(9), 842-852 

Do Sul, J A I, Costa, M F, and Fillmann, G (2014), Microplastics in the Pelagic Environment Around Oceanic Islands of the Western Tropical Atlantic Ocean, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 225(7), 2004 

Eriksen, M, Lebreton, L C, Carson, H S, Thiel, M, Moore, C J, Borerro, J C, . . . Reisser, J (2014),  Plastic Pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea, PloS one, 9(12), e111913 

Eriksen, M, Maximenko, N, Thiel, M, Cummins, A, Lattin, G, Wilson, S, . . . Rifman, S (2013), Plastic Pollution in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 68(1-2), 71-76 

Faure, F, Saini, C, Potter, G, Galgani, F, De Alencastro, L F, & Hagmann, P (2015), An Evaluation of Surface Micro-and Mesoplastic Pollution in Pelagic Ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean Sea, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(16), 12190-12197 

Fok, L, & Cheung, P K (2015), Hong Kong at the Pearl River Estuary: A Hotspot of Microplastic Pollution, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 99(1-2), 112-118 

Fok, L, Cheung, P K, Tang, G, & Li, W C (2017), Size Distribution of Stranded Small Plastic Debris on the coast of Guangdong, South China,  Environmental Pollution, 220, 407-412 

Galgani, F, Hanke, G, & Maes, T (2015), Global Distribution, Composition and Abundance of Marine Litter, Marine anthropogenic litter (pp. 29-56): Springer, Cham

Jamieson, A J, Brooks, L, Reid, W, Piertney, S, Narayanaswamy, B, & Linley, T (2019), Microplastics and Synthetic Particles Ingested by Deep-sea Amphipods in Six of the Deepest Marine Ecosystems on Earth, Royal Society open science, 6(2), 180667 

Karthik, R, Robin, R, Purvaja, R, Ganguly, D, Anandavelu, I, Raghuraman, R, . . . Ramesh, R (2018), Microplastics Along the Beaches of Southeast Coast of India, Science of the Total Environment, 645, 1388-1399 

Lebreton, L C, Van der Zwet, J, Damsteeg, J-W, Slat, B, Andrady, A, & Reisser, J (2017), River Plastic Emissions to the World’s oceans, Nature Communications, 8, 15611 

Lee, J, Lee, J S, Jang, Y C, Hong, S Y, Shim, W J, Song, Y K, . . . Kang, D (2015), Distribution and Size Relationships of Plastic Marine Debris on Beaches in South Korea, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 69(3), 288-298 

Lusher, A L, Tirelli, V, O’Connor, I, & Officer, R (2015), Microplastics in Arctic Polar Waters: the First Reported Values of Particles in Surface and Sub-surface Samples, Scientific reports, 5, 14947 

Olivelli, A, Hardesty, D, & Wilcox, C (2020), Coastal Margins and Backshores Represent a Major Sink for Marine Debris: Insights from a Continental-scale Analysis, Environmental Research Letters 

Retama, I, Jonathan, M, Shruti, V, Velumani, S, Sarkar, S, Roy, P D, and Rodríguez-Espinosa, P (2016), Microplastics in Tourist Beaches of Huatulco Bay, Pacific Coast of Southern Mexico, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 113(1-2), 530-535 

Sadri, S S, & Thompson, R C (2014), On the Quantity and Composition of Floating Plastic Debris Entering and Leaving the Tamar Estuary, Southwest England, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 81(1), 55-60 

Suaria, G, & Aliani, S (2014), Floating Debris in the Mediterranean Sea, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 86(1-2), 494-504 

Taylor, M, Gwinnett, C, Robinson, L, & Woodall, L (2016), Plastic Microfibre Ingestion by Deep-sea Organisms, Scientific reports, 6(1), 1-9 

Tekman, M B, Krumpen, T, & Bergmann, M (2017), Marine Litter on Deep Arctic Seafloor Continues to Increase and Spreads to the North at the HAUSGARTEN Observatory, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 120, 88-99 

Tsang, Y, Mak, C, Liebich, C, Lam, S, Sze, E T, & Chan, K (2017), Microplastic Pollution in the Marine Waters and Sediments of Hong Kong, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 115(1-2), 20-28 

Van Cauwenberghe, L, Vanreusel, A, Mees, J, & Janssen, C R (2013), Microplastic Pollution in Deep-sea Sediments, Environmental Pollution, 182, 495-499 

Wessel, C C Lockridge, G R, Battiste, D, & Cebrian, J (2016), Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in Beach Sediments: Insights into Microplastic Accumulation in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 109(1), 178-183 

Woodall, L C, Sanchez-Vidal, A, Canals, M, Paterson, G L, Coppock, R, Sleight, V, . . . Thompson, R C (2014), The Deep Sea is a Major Sink for Microplastic Debris, Royal Society open science, 1(4), 140317 

Zeri, C, Adamopoulou, A, Varezić, D B, Fortibuoni, T, Viršek, M K, Kržan, A, . . . Peterlin, M (2018), Floating Plastics in Adriatic Waters (Mediterranean Sea): From the Macro- to the Micro-scale, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 136, 341-350 

Zhang, W, Zhang, S, Wang, J, Wang, Y, Mu, J, Wang, P, . . . Ma, D (2017), Microplastic Pollution in the Surface Waters of the Bohai Sea, China, Environmental Pollution, 231, 541-548 

Zhao, S, Zhu, L, & Li, D (2015), Microplastic in Three Urban Estuaries, China, Environmental Pollution, 206, 597-604 

Zhao, S, Zhu, L, Wang, T, & Li, D (2014), Suspended Microplastics in the Surface Water of the Yangtze Estuary System, China: First Observations on Occurrence, Distribution, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 86(1-2), 562-568 

Zurcher, N A (2009), Small Plastic Debris on Beaches in Hong Kong: an Initial Investigation, HKU Theses Online (HKUTO)

Zhou, Q, Zhang, H, Fu, C, Zhou, Y, Dai, Z, Li, Y, . . . Luo, Y (2018), The Distribution and Morphology of Microplastics in Coastal Soils Adjacent to the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea, Geoderma, 322, 201-208 

References for Part B

Coastal Environments in Hong Kong

Jade Yui Chain Tsui and Lincoln Fok

Further Information and References

Civil Engineering and Development Department (The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region) (2020). Role of reclamation in Hong Kong development. Retrieved from: https://www.cedd.gov.hk/filemanager/eng/content_954/Info_Sheet3.pdf

Dong, L, Su, J, Wong, L, Cao, Z, & Chen, J (2004). Seasonal variation and dynamics of the Pearl River plume. Continental Shelf Research, 24(16), 1761-1777 

Environmental Protection Department (The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region). (2006). 20 years of marine water quality monitoring in Hong Kong. Retrieved from: https://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/misc/marine_quality/1986-2005/eng/introduction_menu.htm

Fang, G, Fang, W, Fang, Y, & Wang, K (1998). A survey of studies on the South China Sea upper ocean circulation. Acta Oceanographica Taiwanica, 37(1), 1-16 

Hong Kong Observatory. (2020a). Climate Change in Hong Kong – Mean sea level. Retrieved from:  https://www.hko.gov.hk/en/climate_change/obs_hk_sea_level.htm

Hong Kong Observatory. (2020b). Climate Projections for Hong Kong. Retrieved from https://www.hko.gov.hk/en/climate_change/proj_hk_info.htm

Hong Kong Observatory. (2020c). Climatological Information Services: Climate of Hong Kong. Retrieved from: https://www.hko.gov.hk/en/cis/climahk.htm

Hong Kong Observatory. (2020d). Storm surge records in Hong Kong during the passage of tropical cyclones. Retrieved from: https://www.hko.gov.hk/en/wservice/tsheet/pms/stormsurgedb.htm?t=RANK&v=SEA_LEVEL

Nott, J, Green, C, Townsend, I, & Callaghan, J (2014). The World Record Storm Surge and the Most Intense Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclone: New Evidence and Modeling. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95(5), 757-765. doi:10.1175/bams-d-1200233.1

Tan, D., Low, C. T., & Mirando, D. (2019). HK submerged? Is this map for real? Retrieved from:  http://www.chinawaterrisk.org/resources/analysis-reviews/hk-submerged-is-this-map-for-real/

Yim, WW (1995). Implications of Sea-Level Rise for Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. Journal of Coastal Research, 167-189

Marine Habitats and Biodiversity in Hong Kong

Dr Walter Dellisanti

Further Information and References

http://awsassets.wwfhk.panda.org/downloads/20180531_sff_mps_booklet.pdf

http://awsassets.wwfhk.panda.org/downloads/inter_tidal_mudflat.pdf

https://www.afcd.gov.hk/english/conservation/con_wet/con_wet_sea/con_wet_sea.html

https://www.afcd.gov.hk/english/country/cou_vis/cou_vis_mar/cou_vis_mar_sargassum.html

https://www.afcd.gov.hk/english/country/cou_vis/cou_vis_mar/cou_vis_mar_des/cou_vis_mar_des_swl.html

https://www.hku.hk/press/news_detail_15755.html

https://www.noaa.gov/education/resource-collections/marine-life-education-resources/aquatic-food-webs

https://www.noaa.gov/education/resource-collections/marine-life-education-resources/coral-reef-ecosystems

https://www.wetlandpark.gov.hk/en/biodiversity/hab-index

https://www.wwf.org.hk/en/?7880/WWF-Launches-Hong-Kongs-First-Marine-Biodiversity-Map-Reveals-Fascinating-Ocean-Treasures

References for Part A

The Basic Principles of Oceanography

Christelle Not

Further Information and References

https://www.gebco.net/data_and_products/printable_maps/

The Ocean, a Large Recycler

Marilou Bourdreux and Myriam Thomas

Further Information and References

http://planktonchronicles.org/en/

http://www.ocean-climate.org/?p=3896

http://www.ocean-climate.org/?p=3896

http://www.ocean-climate.org/?page_id=2128

https://ocean-climate.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/2.-The-ocean-a-carbon-pump-scientific-fact-sheets-2019.pdf

The Ocean’s Major Influence on Climate

Marilou Bourdreux and Myriam Thomas

Further Information and Resource Links

IPCC, COP AND OCE:

http://ocean-climate.org/?page_id=3829&lang=en

https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/3/2019/11/03_SROCC_SPM_FINAL.pdf
https://ocean-climate.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/1.-The-ocean-a-heat-reservoir-scientific-fact-sheets-2019.pdf
https://ocean-climate.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/2.-The-ocean-a-carbon-pump-scientific-fact-sheets-2019.pdf
https://ocean-climate.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/6.-Ocean-biodiversity-and-climate-scientific-fact-sheets-2019.pdf

Others:

https://oceans.taraexpeditions.org/en/rp/locean-thermostat-de-la-planete/

https://www.oce.global/en/resources/class-activities/climate-our-hands-ocean-and-cryosphere

https://wwz.ifremer.fr/L-ocean-pour-tous/Nos-ressources-pedagogiques/Comprendre-les-oceans/Ocean-et-climat/Les-oceans.-reservoirs-et-redistributeurs-de-chaleur