References for Part C

Illegal fishing

Gary Stokes

Further Information and References

What is IUU Fishing?

http://www.fao.org/iuu-fishing/background/what-is-iuu-fishing/en/

Fisheries Crime 

https://www.unodc.org/documents/commissions/CCPCJ/CCPCJ_Sessions/CCPCJ_25/ECN152016_CRP2_e_.pdf
https://www.unodc.org/documents/about-unodc/Campaigns/Fisheries/focus_sheet_PRINT.pdf

https://www.marineinsight.com/maritime-law/7-dangers-of-flags-of-convenience-foc-to-seafarers/

https://www.itfglobal.org/en/sector/seafarers/flags-of-convenience

https://ejfoundation.org/resources/downloads/report-all-at-sea_0_1.pdf
https://nexushumantrafficking.files.wordpress.com/2017/01/surtees-2013-trapped-at-sea.pdf

https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/WCMS_143251/lang–en/index.htm

http://www.fao.org/3/t0502e/T0502E01.htm

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cyanide-fishing/

https://www.wired.co.uk/article/global-fishing-watch-false-data-windward

https://www.sustainalytics.com/esg-research/resource/investors-esg-blog/slavery-in-the-seafood-industry

https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/blood-and-water-slavery-in-the-fishing-industry-revealed

https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/policy-areas/fisheries/lang–en/index.htm

https://ec.europa.eu/oceans-and-fisheries/index_en

http://www.fao.org/3/w6602e/w6602e04.htm

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11160-015-9403-0

https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_214472.pdf

https://www.sbs.com.au/news/australia-s-imported-seafood-linked-to-slave-labour/c1c66ba2-2a60-4b11-bf9b-dc143aa62e91

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/dec/14/shrimp-sold-by-global-supermarkets-is-peeled-by-slave-labourers-in-thailand

https://ejfoundation.org/resources/downloads/report-all-at-sea_0_1.pdf
https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/the-illegal-fishing-and-organised-crime-nexus-1.pdf

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/study-finds-seafood-mislabeled-illegal

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/article-nearly-half-of-canadian-seafood-improperly-labelled-study/

https://www.economist.com/europe/2017/11/23/netherlands-fishmongers-accuse-herring-tasters-of-erring

The Scale of IUU Fishing

http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6069e.pdf

https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2013/12/10/how-to-end-illegal-fishing

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0004570

https://www.cbd.int/financial/monterreytradetech/unep-illegaltrade.pdf

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2211464513000948

https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=GB2013202617

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0004570

The Harms of Fisheries Crime

https://reliefweb.int/report/world/state-world-fisheries-and-aquaculture-2012#:~:text=The%20State%20of%20World%20Fisheries%20and%20Aquaculture%202012%20reveals%20that,of%20their%20animal%20protein%20intake.

http://www.fao.org/3/i9540en/i9540en.pdf

http://www.fao.org/3/t0502e/T0502E01.htm

https://science.jrank.org/pages/2162/Drift-Net.html

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2211464513000948

https://journal-neo.org/2014/04/18/rus-transnatsional-naya-organizovannaya-prestupnost-v-sfere-ry-bolovnogo-promy-sla/

https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_214472.pdf

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2593582

http://www.fao.org/3/i9540en/i9540en.pdf

https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.environ.33.020807.143204

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-fish-food/one-third-of-world-fish-catch-used-for-animal-feed-idUSTRE49S0XH20081029

https://www.oecd.org/ctp/crime/evading-the-net-tax-crime-fisheries-sector.pdf
https://www.oecd.org/ctp/crime/evading-the-net-tax-crime-fisheries-sector.pdf
https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=iS9tbC7mLIUC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=legal+and+illegal+fish+are+sold+on+the+same+markets,+but+legitimate+fishers+pay+higher+operating+costs+associated+with+licensing+and+overhead+due+to+conservation+and+management+measur#v=onepage&q=legal%20and%20illegal%20fish%20are%20sold%20on%20the%20same%20markets%2C%20but%20legitimate%20fishers%20pay%20higher%20operating%20costs%20associated%20with%20licensing%20and%20overhead%20due%20to%20conservation%20and%20management%20measur&f=false
https://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=TAD/FI(2017)14/FINAL&docLanguage=En
https://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/legacy/uploadedfiles/peg/publications/report/PewOSSWorldEconomypdf.pdf

https://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/economy/moratorium-impacts.php

https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2011/05/02/milliondollar-reef-sharks

https://www.futuredirections.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/1297299965-FDI%20Strategic%20Analysis%20Paper%20-%2010%20February%202011.pdf

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/18366503.2013.10815747

https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/the-illegal-fishing-and-organised-crime-nexus-1.pdf

https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/transnational-organized-crime/book241197

Shipping

Abbie Hui

Further Information and References

http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/HotTopics/Pages/Sulphur-2020.aspx 

https://blogs.worldbank.org/transport/zero-emission-shipping-whats-it-developing-countries

https://medium.com/shone-blog/the-shipping-industry-is-now-tackling-its-emission-problem-head-on-c0d03105e09f

https://phys.org/news/2019-06-groups-tons-fishing-nets-pacific.html

https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/rmt2019_en.pdf

https://www.eea.europa.eu/signals/signals-2014/close-up/litter-in-our-seas

https://www.history.com/topics/1980s/exxon-valdez-oil-spill

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/long_reads/torrey-canyon-oil-spill-cornwall-richard-pearce-a7633486.html

https://www.itopf.org/knowledge-resources/data-statistics/statistics/

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/oil-spills-30-years-after-exxon-valdez

https://www.wwf.de/fileadmin/fm-wwf/Publikationen-PDF/Study_Silent_Invasion.pdf
https://www3.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/vgp_graywater.pdf

Climate Change Consequences

George Ma

Further Information and References

 RCP stands for Representative Concentration Pathway. The RCP2.6, a low-emissions scenario, assumes that major steps will be taken by human societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions so that global warming will be kept below 2°C by 2100. The RCP8.5, a high-emissions scenario, assumes a ‘business as usual’ pathway, such that greenhouse gas emissions will increase rapidly throughout the 21st century, resulting in a 4°C warming by 2100

Bennett, J (2016) A Global Warming Primer: Answering Your Questions about the Science, the Consequences, and the Solutions, Big Kid Science

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2019) Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate

Office for Climate Education (2020) Summary for Teachers: The Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate

Office for Climate Education (2019) Workshop: Ocean and Climate Change

Plastics: Definition, History and Chemical Properties

Christelle Not

Further Information and References

https://greenchemuoft.wordpress.com/2019/09/13/green-marketing-in-the-plastic-era-honesty-or-hype/

The Disposable Culture and Challenges with Recycling

Tracey Read

Further Information and References

https://ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/the-new-plastics-economy-rethinking-the-future-of-plastics-and-catalysing

https://plasticsrecycling.org/apr-design-guide

https://plasticsrecycling.org/images/pdf/design-guide/Full_APR_Design_Guide.pdf
https://rethinkplasticalliance.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/bffp_rpa_reusable_solutions_report.pdf
https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/25496/singleUsePlastic_sustainability.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/EllenMacArthurFoundation_TheNewPlasticsEconomy_Pages.pdf
https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/publications/NPEC-Hybrid_English_22-11-17_Digital.pdf
https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/Reuse.pdf

https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/the-new-plastics-economy-rethinking-the-future-of-plastics-catalysing-action

https://www.gov.hk/en/residents/environment/waste/management/prs.htm

https://www.government.nl/topics/circular-economy/from-a-linear-to-a-circular-economy

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/future-of-food/food-packaging-plastics-recycle-solutions/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318567844_Production_use_and_fate_of_all_plastics_ever_made

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324926383_Advanced_approaches_to_produce_polyhydroxyalkanoate_PHA_biopolyesters_in_a_sustainable_and_economic_fashion

https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/health-environment/article/2116318/hong-kong-throws-away-52-million-bottles-every

https://www.statista.com/statistics/282732/global-production-of-plastics-since-1950/

http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_NEWPLASTICSECONOMY_2017.pdf 

Macro and Micro Plastics in the Environment

Theresa Wing Ling Lam and Lincoln Fok

Further Information and References

Andrady, A  L  (2015), Persistence of Plastic Litter in the Oceans, Marine Anthropogenic Litter (pp. 57-72): Springer, Cham

Andrady, A  L (2011), Microplastics in the Marine Environment,  Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(8), 1596-1605 

Antunes, J, Frias, J, & Sobral, P (2018), Microplastics on the Portuguese Coast,  Marine Pollution Bulletin, 131, 294-302 

Arthur, C, Baker, J, & Bamford, H (2009), Proceedings of the International Research Workshop on the Occurrence, Effects, and Fate of Microplastic Marine Debris, September 9-11, 2008, University of Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA, USA 

Bancin, L J, Walther, B A, Lee, Y-C, & Kunz, A (2019), Two-dimensional Distribution and Abundance of Micro-and Mesoplastic Pollution in the Surface Sediment of Xialiao Beach, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 140, 75-85 

Barnes, D K, Walters, A, & Gonçalves, L (2010), Macroplastics at Sea Around Antarctica. Marine Environmental Research, 70(2), 250-252 

Bergmann, M, Wirzberger, V, Krumpen, T, Lorenz, C, Primpke, S, Tekman, M B, & Gerdts, G (2017), High Quantities of Microplastic in Arctic Deep-sea Sediments from the HAUSGARTEN observatory. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(19), 11000-11010 

Carpenter, E J, & Smith, K (1972), Plastics on the Sargasso Sea Surface, Science, 175(4027), 1240-1241 

Chae, D-H, Kim, I-S, Kim, S-K, Song, Y K, & Shim, W J (2015), Abundance and Distribution Characteristics of Microplastics in Surface Seawaters of the Incheon/Kyeonggi Coastal Region, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 69(3), 269-278 

Cheung, P K, Fok, L, Hung, P L, & Cheung, L T (2018), Spatio-temporal Comparison of Neustonic Microplastic Density in Hong Kong Waters Under the Influence of the Pearl River Estuary, Science of the Total Environment, 628, 731-739 

Chiba, S, Saito, H, Fletcher, R, Yogi, T, Kayo, M, Miyagi, S, . . . Fujikura, K (2018), Human Footprint in the Abyss: 30 year Records of Deep-sea Plastic Debris, Marine Policy, 96, 204-212 

Cózar, A, Martí, E, Duarte, C M, García-de-Lomas, J, Van Sebille, E, Ballatore, T J, Echevarría, F (2017), The Arctic Ocean as a Dead End for Floating Plastics in the North Atlantic Branch of the Thermohaline Circulation, Science advances, 3(4), e1600582 

de Lucia, G A, Caliani, I, Marra, S, Camedda, A, Coppa, S, Alcaro, L, . . . Cicero, A M (2014), Amount and Distribution of Neustonic Micro-plastic off the Western Sardinian Coast (Central-Western Mediterranean Sea), Marine Environmental Research, 100, 10-16 

Derraik, J G (2002), The Pollution of the Marine Environment by Plastic Debris: a Review, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(9), 842-852 

Do Sul, J A I, Costa, M F, and Fillmann, G (2014), Microplastics in the Pelagic Environment Around Oceanic Islands of the Western Tropical Atlantic Ocean, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 225(7), 2004 

Eriksen, M, Lebreton, L C, Carson, H S, Thiel, M, Moore, C J, Borerro, J C, . . . Reisser, J (2014),  Plastic Pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea, PloS one, 9(12), e111913 

Eriksen, M, Maximenko, N, Thiel, M, Cummins, A, Lattin, G, Wilson, S, . . . Rifman, S (2013), Plastic Pollution in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 68(1-2), 71-76 

Faure, F, Saini, C, Potter, G, Galgani, F, De Alencastro, L F, & Hagmann, P (2015), An Evaluation of Surface Micro-and Mesoplastic Pollution in Pelagic Ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean Sea, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(16), 12190-12197 

Fok, L, & Cheung, P K (2015), Hong Kong at the Pearl River Estuary: A Hotspot of Microplastic Pollution, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 99(1-2), 112-118 

Fok, L, Cheung, P K, Tang, G, & Li, W C (2017), Size Distribution of Stranded Small Plastic Debris on the coast of Guangdong, South China,  Environmental Pollution, 220, 407-412 

Galgani, F, Hanke, G, & Maes, T (2015), Global Distribution, Composition and Abundance of Marine Litter, Marine anthropogenic litter (pp. 29-56): Springer, Cham

Jamieson, A J, Brooks, L, Reid, W, Piertney, S, Narayanaswamy, B, & Linley, T (2019), Microplastics and Synthetic Particles Ingested by Deep-sea Amphipods in Six of the Deepest Marine Ecosystems on Earth, Royal Society open science, 6(2), 180667 

Karthik, R, Robin, R, Purvaja, R, Ganguly, D, Anandavelu, I, Raghuraman, R, . . . Ramesh, R (2018), Microplastics Along the Beaches of Southeast Coast of India, Science of the Total Environment, 645, 1388-1399 

Lebreton, L C, Van der Zwet, J, Damsteeg, J-W, Slat, B, Andrady, A, & Reisser, J (2017), River Plastic Emissions to the World’s oceans, Nature Communications, 8, 15611 

Lee, J, Lee, J S, Jang, Y C, Hong, S Y, Shim, W J, Song, Y K, . . . Kang, D (2015), Distribution and Size Relationships of Plastic Marine Debris on Beaches in South Korea, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 69(3), 288-298 

Lusher, A L, Tirelli, V, O’Connor, I, & Officer, R (2015), Microplastics in Arctic Polar Waters: the First Reported Values of Particles in Surface and Sub-surface Samples, Scientific reports, 5, 14947 

Olivelli, A, Hardesty, D, & Wilcox, C (2020), Coastal Margins and Backshores Represent a Major Sink for Marine Debris: Insights from a Continental-scale Analysis, Environmental Research Letters 

Retama, I, Jonathan, M, Shruti, V, Velumani, S, Sarkar, S, Roy, P D, and Rodríguez-Espinosa, P (2016), Microplastics in Tourist Beaches of Huatulco Bay, Pacific Coast of Southern Mexico, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 113(1-2), 530-535 

Sadri, S S, & Thompson, R C (2014), On the Quantity and Composition of Floating Plastic Debris Entering and Leaving the Tamar Estuary, Southwest England, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 81(1), 55-60 

Suaria, G, & Aliani, S (2014), Floating Debris in the Mediterranean Sea, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 86(1-2), 494-504 

Taylor, M, Gwinnett, C, Robinson, L, & Woodall, L (2016), Plastic Microfibre Ingestion by Deep-sea Organisms, Scientific reports, 6(1), 1-9 

Tekman, M B, Krumpen, T, & Bergmann, M (2017), Marine Litter on Deep Arctic Seafloor Continues to Increase and Spreads to the North at the HAUSGARTEN Observatory, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 120, 88-99 

Tsang, Y, Mak, C, Liebich, C, Lam, S, Sze, E T, & Chan, K (2017), Microplastic Pollution in the Marine Waters and Sediments of Hong Kong, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 115(1-2), 20-28 

Van Cauwenberghe, L, Vanreusel, A, Mees, J, & Janssen, C R (2013), Microplastic Pollution in Deep-sea Sediments, Environmental Pollution, 182, 495-499 

Wessel, C C Lockridge, G R, Battiste, D, & Cebrian, J (2016), Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in Beach Sediments: Insights into Microplastic Accumulation in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 109(1), 178-183 

Woodall, L C, Sanchez-Vidal, A, Canals, M, Paterson, G L, Coppock, R, Sleight, V, . . . Thompson, R C (2014), The Deep Sea is a Major Sink for Microplastic Debris, Royal Society open science, 1(4), 140317 

Zeri, C, Adamopoulou, A, Varezić, D B, Fortibuoni, T, Viršek, M K, Kržan, A, . . . Peterlin, M (2018), Floating Plastics in Adriatic Waters (Mediterranean Sea): From the Macro- to the Micro-scale, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 136, 341-350 

Zhang, W, Zhang, S, Wang, J, Wang, Y, Mu, J, Wang, P, . . . Ma, D (2017), Microplastic Pollution in the Surface Waters of the Bohai Sea, China, Environmental Pollution, 231, 541-548 

Zhao, S, Zhu, L, & Li, D (2015), Microplastic in Three Urban Estuaries, China, Environmental Pollution, 206, 597-604 

Zhao, S, Zhu, L, Wang, T, & Li, D (2014), Suspended Microplastics in the Surface Water of the Yangtze Estuary System, China: First Observations on Occurrence, Distribution, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 86(1-2), 562-568 

Zurcher, N A (2009), Small Plastic Debris on Beaches in Hong Kong: an Initial Investigation, HKU Theses Online (HKUTO)

Zhou, Q, Zhang, H, Fu, C, Zhou, Y, Dai, Z, Li, Y, . . . Luo, Y (2018), The Distribution and Morphology of Microplastics in Coastal Soils Adjacent to the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea, Geoderma, 322, 201-208 

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